List of abbreviations


10 ppm            10 parts per million

12 m                12 months

3.5 m               3.5 metre

°C                    Degree Celsius

A-S-I                Avoid-Shift-Improve

ACT                 Action towards Climate-friendly Transport

ADB                 Asian Development Bank

AFD                 French Development Agency (Agence française de développement)

ALICE              Alliance for Logistics Innovation and Collaboration in Europe

AIIB                 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

APEC              Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

ASEAN            Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ATM                Air traffic management

B10                  10% biodiesel blend in diesel

B30                  30% biodiesel blend in diesel

B100                100% biodiesel

BAIC                Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Company

BAU                 Business as usual

BGD                Bangladesh

BTS                 Bureau of Transportation Statistics

BRT                 Bus rapid transit

CAD                Canadian dollar

CAEP              Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection

CAF                 Development Bank of Latin America

CAT                 Climate Action Tracker

CCAFS            Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security

CDM                Clean Development Mechanism

CDP                Carbon Disclosure Project

CNG                Compressed natural gas

COACCH        CO-designing the Assessment of Climate Change Costs

CO2                 Carbon dioxide

CO2e               Carbon dioxide equivalent

COP                Conference of the parties (United Nations Climate Change Conference)

CORSIA          Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation

CPI                  Change Partners International

CRC                Costa Rican Colón

CTF                 Climate Technology Fund

E-bike              Electric bike

E-scooter         Electric scooter

EBRD              European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC                   European Commission

ECF                 European Cyclists’ Federation

ECLAC            United Nations Economic Commissions for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECOWAS        Economic Community of West African States

EDGAR           Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research

EEA                 European Environmental Agency

EIA                  US Energy Information Administration

EIB                  European Investment Bank

EPA                 Environmental Protection Agency

ESG                Environmental, social, and corporate governance

EU                   European Union

EUR                Euro

EV                   Electric vehicle

FAME              Faster Adoption and Manufacture of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

FAME (biodiesel)        Fatty acid methyl esters

FTA                 Federal Transit Administration

GAD                Decentralised autonomous government (Gobierno autónomo descentralizado)

G (CO2)           Grams            

GBP                British pound sterling

GCF                Green Climate Fund

GDCI               Global Designing Cities Initiative

GDP                Gross domestic product

GHG                Greenhouse gas

GEF                Global Environment Facility

GFEI               Global Fuel Economy Initiative

GIZ                  Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH

Gt                    Gigatonnes

GPS                Global positioning system

HAC                High Ambition Coalition

HDV                Heavy-duty vehicle

HEV                 Hybrid electric vehicle

HGV                Heavy goods vehicle

Hr                    Hour

HVO                Hydrotreated vegetable oil

IATA                International Air Transport Association

ICAO               International Civil Aviation Organization

ICCT               International Council on Clean Transportation

ICE                  Internal combustion engine

ICLEI               Local Governments for Sustainability

IDB                  Inter-American Development Bank

IEA                  International Energy Agency

IFRN               Federal Institute of Rio Grande do Norte (Instituto Federal de Rio Grande do Norte)

IISD                 International Institute for Sustainable Development

IKI                    International Climate Initiative

IMF                  International Monetary Fund

INDC               Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

Incl.                 Including

Intl.                  International

IMO                 International Maritime Organization

IPCC               Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IRENA             International Renewable Energy Agency

IRF                  International Road Federation

IsDB                Islamic Development Bank

ITDP                Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

ITF                  International Transport Forum

IRF                  International Road Federation

JCM                 Joint Crediting Mechanism

JI                     Joint Implementation

JR                   Japan Railway

KCCA              Kampala Capital City Authority

KES                 Kenyan Shilling

Kg                    Kilogram

Km                   Kilometre

kW                   Kilowatt

kWh                 Kilowatt-hour

L                      Litre

Lge                  Litres of gasoline-equivalent

LAC                 Latin America and the Caribbean

LDV                 Light-duty vehicle

LEDS               Low Emissions Development Strategies

LEZ                 Low-emissions zone

LNG                Liquefied natural gas

LRT                 Light rail transit

LT-LEDS         Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy

MaaS               Mobility as a Service

Mboe/d            Million barrels of oil equivalent per day

MDB                Multilateral development bank

MJ                   Megajoule

MPGCA           Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action

Mt                    Metric ton

MtCO2e           Metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent

Mtonnes          Megatonnes

N/A                  Not applicable

NACTO           National Association of City Transportation Officials

NAMA             Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

NAP                 National Adaptation Plan

NAPA              National Adaptation Programmes of Action

NCCETC         North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center

NDC                Nationally Determined Contributions

NDF                Nordic Development Fund

NEDC             New European Driving Cycle

NGO                Non-governmental organisation

NUMO             New Urban Mobility Alliance

NUMP             National urban mobility plan

ODF                Official development finance

OECD             Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OEM                Original equipment manufacturer

OICA               Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles

PBSP             Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership

PHEV              Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

Pkm                 Passenger kilometre

PM2.5               Fine particulate matter

PPMC             Paris Process on Mobility and Climate

PSI                  Private sector involvement

RED                Renewable Energy Directive

REN21            Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century

RNG                Renewable natural gas

RPI                  Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

RPK                 Revenue passenger kilometre

SAATM           Single African Air Transport Market

SIDS               Small island developing states

SDG                UN Sustainable Development Goal

SLOCAT          SLOCAT Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport

SMP                Shared mobility principles

SSATP            Africa Transport Policy Programme

SuM4All           Sustainable Mobility for All

SUMC             Shared-Use Mobility Center

SUMP             Sustainable urban mobility plan

SUV                Sport utility vehicle

TEU                 Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit

THB                 Thai baht

TDA                 Transport Decarbonisation Alliance

T&E                 Transport & Environment

TOD                Transit-oriented development

TNC                Transport network company

TUMI               Transformative Urban Mobility Initiative

UC                   University of California

UEMI               Urban Electric Mobility Initiative

UIC                  International Union of Railways

UITP                International Association of Public Transport

UK                   United Kingdom

UK PACT        United Kingdom Partnering for Accelerated Climate Transitions

ULEZ               Ultra-low-emission zone

UN-Habitat      United Nations Human Settlements Programme

UN                   United Nations

UNCTAD         United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDRR           United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

UNECOSOC   United Nations Economic and Social Council

UNEP             United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCAP      United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UNESCWA      United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

UNFCCC        United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USA                   United States of America

USD                United States Dollar

VAT                 Value-added tax

VNR                Voluntary National Review

VOC                Volatile organic compounds

WEF                World Economic Forum

WGST             Working group on sustainable transport

WHO               World Health Organization

WLTP              Worldwide harmonised light vehicles test procedure

WRI                 World Resources Institute

WTW               Well-to-wheel

WWF               World Wildlife Fund

ZEV                 Zero-emission vehicle

ZEZ                 Zero-emission zone