The report should be cited as:
SLOCAT (2023), Transport, Climate and Sustainability Global Status Report – 3rd edition,


Data access and licensing 

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform and build upon the material for any purpose. Attribution — you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence and indicate if changes were made.   

The development of this report was led by Maruxa Cardama, Angel Cortez, Emily Hosek, Agustina Krapp, Nikola Medimorec, and Alice Yiu from the SLOCAT secretariat.

Our warm thanks to the many SLOCAT partners and experts from the wider transport community who have shaped this report. A significant share of the research for this report was conducted on a voluntary basis.


Financial supporters 

This edition has been made possible thanks to financial support by  Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) through their International Climate Initiative (IKI) and by the Volvo Research and Education Foundations (VREF).



Chief Advisor

Holger Dalkmann (Sustain2030) 

Advisory team (alphabetical by affiliation’s full name) 

Suzanne Spooner (AFD), Carolina Chantrill (Asociación Sustentar / LEDS LAC), Nicholas You (Citistates), Friedel Sehlleier and Urda Eichhorst (GIZ), Andrea San Gil Leon (Global Network for Popular Transportation), Tu My Tran (ICLEI), Yann Briand (IDDRI), Maisarah Abdul Kadir and Nicholas Wagner (IRENA),  Atiq Ahmad and Olatunji Yusuf (IsDB),  Jacob Mason (ITDP), Wei-Shiuen Ng and John Pritchard (ITF-OECD),  José Holguin-Veras (RPI), Rik Arends and Gabriela Domingo (Smart Freight Centre), Alok Jain (Trans Consult), Madan Bandhu Regmi (UNESCAP), Yarob Badr (UNESCWA), Bronwen Thornton (Walk21), Benjamin Welle (WRI).  


Contributing authors by section 

*The list of contributing authors is final.

Takeaways for Decision Markers

Lead author: Hannah Murdock, Imperial College London

Contributors: Maruxa Cardama, Holger Dalkmann, Nikola Medimorec, Alice Yiu

Module 1: Transport Pathways to Reach Global Climate and Sustainability Goals


1.1 Transforming Transport and Mobility to Achieve the Targets of the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Maruxa Cardama, Agustina Krapp, Nikola Medimorec and Alice Yiu, SLOCAT secretariat


1.2 Transport Adaptation and Resilience

Authors: Juliet Mian, Amy Leitch, Áine Ní Bhreasail and Louis Andrews, Arup; Rebecca Laberenne and Kerem Yilmaz, Resilience Rising; Savina Carluccio, International Coalition for Sustainable Infrastructure

Contributors: Mathieu Verougstraete, United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction


Spotlight 1. Transport-Health Nexus

Author: Alison Doig, Health Climate Network

Contributors: Karl Peet and Ambika Sairam, SLOCAT secretariat; Thiago Hérick de Sá, World Health Organization


Spotlight 2. Transport Adaptation and Decarbonisation in Small Island Developing States

Authors: Hannah Murdock, Imperial College London; Arjay Dineros, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Karl Peet, SLOCAT secretariat; Raffael Held and Janina Marie Laurent, GIZ; Nicole Baker, Arup; Sam Johnson, World Bank


1.3 National and Subnational Action for Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport

1.3.1 National Climate and Sustainability Strategies to Achieve the Targets of the Paris Agreement and the SDGs on Transport

Author: Nikola Medimorec and Alice Yiu, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Shivam Ghai, Rohit Nepali, SLOCAT secretariat


Spotlight 3. Engagement of Transport Stakeholders in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Process

Author: Maruxa Cardama and Alice Yiu, SLOCAT secretariat


1.3.2. Subnational Actions for Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport

Author: Tsu-Jui Cheng, National Cheng Kung University; Agustina Krapp, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributor: Tu My Tran, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability


1.3.3. The Role of Business in Decarbonising Transport

Author: Sophie Punte, Smart Freight Centre

Contributors: ; Yann Briand, IDDRI; Charlene Kouassi, MovinOn’ LABS Africa; Joachim Roth, World Benchmarking Alliance

  Box on The Role of Companies in Decarbonising Global Freight and Logistics

Author: Sandra Rothbard, Rik Arends and Tharsis Teoh, Smart Freight Centre


Spotlight 4. Shortening Global Supply Chains as a Key to Decarbonising Transport

Authors: Yann Briand, IDDRI; Sandra Rothbard, Freight Matters



Module 2: Regional Transport and Climate Change Trends


2.1  Africa Regional Overview

Author: Robert Ambunda, University of Namibia: School of Engineering and the Built Environment

Contributors: Verena Knoell, GIZ; Chris Kost, ITDP


2.2 Asia Regional Overview

Authors: Hannah Murdock, Imperial College London; Ambika Sairam, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Urda Eichhorst, GIZ


2.3 Europe Regional Overview

Authors: Hannah Murdock, Imperial College London; Arjay Dineros, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributor: Mark Major, Kühne Foundation


2.4 Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Overview

Author: Agustina Krapp, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Carolina Chantrill, Asociación Sustentar; Lina Quiñones, Despacio; Arturo Steinvorth, Center for Urban Sustainability


2.5 North America Regional Overview

Author: Nikola Medimorec, SLOCAT secretariat


2.6 Oceania Regional Overview

Author: Angel Cortez, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Helen Rowe and Margot Delafoulhouze, Climateworks Australia


Module 3: Climate and Sustainability Responses in Transport Sub-Sectors and Modes


3.1 Integrated Transport Planning

Author: Hannah Murdock, Imperial College London

Supporting Author: Tokam Cabrel, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributor: Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute


3.2 Walking

Author: Jim Walker, Walk21


3.3 Cycling

Author: Philip Amaral, European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF)

Contributors: Jill Warren, European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF); Isabella Burczak and Ben Barrett, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI); Lina Quiñones, Despacio; Sam Johnson, World Bank


3.4 Shared Mobility

3.4.1 Public Transport

Authors: Anna Kustar, Thet Hein Tun and Benjamin Welle, World Resources Institute


3.4.2 Informal Transport

Author:  Andrea San Gil León and Adriana Quesada Valverde, Global Network for Popular Transportation


3.4.3 App-Driven Shared Transport

Author: Sebastian Castellanos, NUMO

Contributor: Agustina Krapp, SLOCAT secretariat


3.5 Rail

Author: Joo Hyun Ha and Lucie Anderton, International Union of Railways (UIC)


3.6 Road Transport

Author: Hannah E. Murdock, Imperial College London

Support Author: Tokam Cabrel, SLOCAT secretariat

Contributors: Mark Major, Kühne Foundation; Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute


3.7 Aviation

Author: Karl Peet, SLOCAT secretariat


3.8 Shipping

Author: Karl Peet, SLOCAT secretariat


Module 4: Transport and Energy


4.1 Transport Energy Sources

Author: Marion Vieweg, Current Future

Contributor: Hannah E. Murdock, Imperial College London


4.2  Vehicle Technologies

Authors: Oliver Lah, Alvin Mejia and Kanya Pranawengkapti, Urban Electric Mobility Initiative, Wuppertal Institute

Contributor: Nikola Medimorec, SLOCAT Secretariat


Module 5: Enabling Climate and Sustainability Action in Transport: Finance, Capacity and Institutional Support


5.1 Financing Sustainable Transport in Times of Limited Budgets

Author: Jyoti Bisbey, World Association of PPP Units and PPP Professionals


Spotlight 5: Capacity and Institutional Support to Achieve Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport

Author: Armin Wagner and Viviane Weinmann, GIZ



Peer reviewers (alphabetical by affiliation’s full name)

Nicole Baker, Paola Bueno and Daniel Philips (ARUP), Carolina Chantrill and Martina Pugno (Asociacion Sustentar), Alimou Lembo (Association Global Humaniste), Richard Lambert (Cities Forum), Tania Martha Thomas and Mélaine Assè-Wassa Sama (Climate Chance), Divya Sharma (Climate Group), Henrik Gudmundsson (Concito), Lóri Tavasszy (Delft University of Technology), Mbuh Raphael (FIMOAT), Esteban Bermudez Forn (GEF), Mateo Gomez, Urda Eichhorst, Verena Flues and Martin Schaefer (GIZ), Yann Briand (IDDRI), Andre Luiz Lopes Toledo (IFRN), Maria Golda Hilario (Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities (ICSC)), Sudarmanto Budi Nugroho (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Japan), Nicholas Wagner (IRENA), Atiq Ahmad and Olatunji Yusef (Islamic Development Bank (IsDB)), Clarisse Cunha Linke (ITDP Brazil), John Pritchard (ITF-OECD), Stefan Bakker (KiM Netherlands Institute), Alan McKinnon (Kühne Logistics University), Jad Baba (REN21), Sukma Larasiti (Transportologi), Susan Shaheen (TRSC UC Berkeley), Hassiba Benamara and Frida Youssef (UNCTAD), Sean Cooke (UNEP), Madam Regmi and Wei-Shiuen Ng (UNESCAP), Winnie Mitullah (University of Nairobi), Ahmad Alimin (University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia), Antonio Chammorro Sanmiguel (Urban Mobility Secretariat of Quito City, Ecuador), Marie Venner (Venner Consulting), Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Henrik Nolmark (VREF), Andrew Losos, Sam Johnson and Shokraneh Minovi (World Bank), Joachim Roth (World Benchmarking Alliance).